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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 13-05-2019

The Gu 2019 rains continued to spread across Somalia over the last week with many stations recording moderate to heavy rains of more than 50mm total rainfall. Moderate to high rains were also received in Ethiopian highlands over the same period. River levels along the Shabelle continued to increase, while the levels along Juba river dropped slightly. Both Shabelle and Juba river levels are currently below the long term mean for this period of the year. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the next 3 days (Map 1) indicates light to moderate rains across the entire country, apart from Somaliland and parts of southern regions around Gedo where little no rains are foreseen. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the week which ends on 19 May 2019 shows moderate to heavy rains across the country as well as the Ethiopian highlands (Map 2). Heavy rains in Mudug and Galgaduud regions bordering Ethiopia may lead to flash floods. Given the rainfall forecast, the Juba and Shabelle River levels are expected to increase slightly in the coming week.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 17-05-2019

The Gu 2019 rains continued to spread across Somalia over the last week with many stations recording moderate to heavy rains of more than 50mm total rainfall. Specifically parts of Somaliland and the central areas bordering Ethiopia recorded heavy rains that led to flash floods and some damages to infrastructure. Moderate to high rains were also received in Ethiopian highlands over the same period. River levels along the Shabelle and Juba continued to increase, reaching the long term mean for the first time since the start of the season. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the next 3 days indicates light to moderate rains across the entire country, apart from Somaliland and parts of southern regions around Gedo where little or no rains are foreseen. The rains are expected to increase further as the week progresses but with lower intensity compared to previous week. It is worth noting that the Gu rainy season started late in Somalia, and the rainfall amounts recorded so far are significantly below normal, with poor temporal and spatial distribution. More rains are required to reverse the damage that has been caused by the poor rains. With no significant rains foreseen until the end of the season, the existing situation may deteriorate further in all the water dependent sectors.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 03-05-2019

The Gu 2019 rainy season started late in many places across the country and have so far been characterized with low amounts of rainfall, poor temporal and spatial distribution. However, a few places are yet to receive the much awaited rains. Moderate rains within the Ethiopian highlands led to a gradual increase in river levels inside Somalia, which are still significantly below normal at this time of the year. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the next 3 days indicates moderate rains in the southern regions with little or no rains in the rest of the country. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the week which ends on 09 May 2019 shows moderate rains across the central and southern regions of Somalia and within Ethiopian highlands. Light rains are expected in Puntland and Somaliland regions during the forecast period.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 06-05-2019

The temporal and spatial distribution of the Gu 2019 rains continue to improve across Somalia. The rains started late in April, with many places across the country recording low rainfall or remaining dry to the end of the month. The situation has however improved over the last few days, especially in the southern parts of the country where moderate rains have been recorded in some stations. The Ethiopian highlands have also received moderate to high rains over the last two weeks, resulting to gradual increase in River levels along Juba and Shabelle. With the current steady rise, the river levels are expected to reach the normal level for this time of the year within the coming one week. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the next 3 days indicates light to moderate rains in many parts of the country, apart from Bari Region and the coastal areas of Somaliland where little or no rains condition is foreseen for this period. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the week which ends on 13 May 2019 shows moderate rains across the country, and less rains along the coastal areas of Somaliland and Bari Region. Moderate to high rains are foreseen in the Ethiopian highlands. As a result, the Juba and Shabelle River levels are expected to continue rising in the coming week.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 09-05-2019

The Gu 2019 rains continued to spread across Somalia over the last few days. Many stations especially in the south have recorded light to moderate rains in the past three days. In the central and northern regions there were scattered rains, while in the Ethiopian highlands moderate to high rains were received over the same period. River levels along Shabelle continued with gradual increase, while the levels along Juba river started to decline after a sharp rise the previous week. Both Shabelle and Juba river levels are currently still below the long term mean for this period of the year. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the next 3 days (Map 1) indicates light to moderate rains across the entire country, apart from the northern coastal areas where no rains are foreseen. The southern coastal areas are likely to receive moderate to high rainfall in the next three days. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the week which ends on 15 May 2019 shows moderate rains across the country. Along the southern and central coastal areas, and some selected places in Sanaag, Togdheer and Bari regions, the forecast indicates moderate to high rains in the coming week. Moderate to high rains are also foreseen in the Ethiopian highlands (Map 2). As a result, the Juba and Shabelle River levels are expected to slightly increase in the coming week.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 16-04-2019

Drought conditions persisted in most parts of the country during the first half of April. Pasture and water are in poor conditions and close to depletion in most areas of key pastoral livelihoods across Somalia. Significant rainfall amounts with good temporal distribution will be required to reverse the current state. The Gu rains normally start in late March in the north western parts of the country and late March / early April in the rest of the country. However, the rains came late in north western regions, and are yet to start in many other parts of the country, which creates doubts among the humanitarian actors in Somalia about the future food security and water availability. Local oceanic systems including the recent cyclones around Mozambique have weakened the rainfall generating mechanism in Somalia and the Horn of Africa in general. River levels increased slightly over the last few days following rains in the Ethiopian highlands. The levels are however below their normal in both Juba and Shabelle rivers during this time of the year.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 18-04-2019

Most parts of Somalia will remain dry in the next three days, apart from few areas in Somaliland and a few pockets in Bay and Bakool regions in the south where light rains are expected. The rainfall forecast for the coming seven days indicates the possibility of more rains towards the end of the week in Somaliland, most parts of southern regions and the Ethiopian highlands. Other areas including Puntland, and central regions will remain dry or receive minimal rains during the coming week. River levels along the Juba and Shabelle Rivers saw a slight increase over the last few days following light to moderate rains in the Ethiopian highlands. However, the levels are still way below the normal and more significant rains are needed to bring the levels back to normal.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 29-04-2019

The week ending 28 April 2019 saw moderate rains in parts of Juba and Shabelle basins both inside Somalia and in Ethiopia. No significant rains were reported in the Central Regions, Puntland and Somaliland in the same period. The good rains in Ethiopian highlands led to a slight increase in river levels inside Somalia, and consequently restoring the river flow in the lower reaches of Shabelle which had gone dry since February 2019. River levels are however still below normal at this time of the year. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the next 3 days indicates light to moderate rains in areas bordering Kenya in the southern regions with little or no rains in the rest of the country. The cumulative rainfall forecast for the week which ends on 05 May 2019 shows light to moderate rains within Juba and Shabelle basins both in Somali and within Ethiopian highlands. The Central, Puntland and Somaliland regions will remain dry, or receive minimal rains in the same period.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 12-04-2019

Most parts of Somalia will remain dry for the next three days, apart from few areas in Puntland and Somaliland where light showers are expected. The rains are expected to spread further in space and time in both Puntland and Somaliland as the week progresses. This will come as a relief to the drought stricken regions especially for pasture regrowth and replenishment of ground water sources. The upper parts of Ethiopian highlands are also expected to receive moderate rains in the same period, this will lead to an increase of water levels along the Juba and Shabelle Rivers inside Somalia. The Central and Southern regions will remain dry during the period in review. This will further exacerbate the existing dry conditions in the areas.

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Update on rainfall river level and likely impact - Issued 11 April 2019

The poor performance of Deyr 2018 coupled with harsh weather conditions in January – March 2019 has left many parts of Somalia facing mild to moderate drought conditions. This has led to serious water scarcity and earlier than normal water trucking across the country and in particular in Somaliland and Puntland. Shabelle & Juba river levels are very low; dried up river beds are seen in some areas.

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Status of River Breakages Shabelle March 2019

Following a poor rainfall season of Deyr 2018 (Oct – Dec) within the Juba and Shabelle river basins the river flows of the two rivers have since been significantly below normal. Reports indicate of drying river beds in some section of the Shabelle River during the month of February 2019. The situation is expected to improve in April given the GU 2019 rainfall forecast which calls for good rains within the catchments. FAO through SWALIM, has been involved in analysing and mapping the river breakages along the Shabelle River using very high resolution (sub meter) satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from earlier acquired aerial photographs having 3 meter resolution. Five types of breakages have been identified along Shabelle River namely; Open, Overflow, Potential Overflows, Potential breakages and Closed. The open breakages are those that were still open according to the latest satellite image analysed . The Overflow, indicates points where there has been recent river spillage causing extensive flooding. The potential overflows are those points that have high likelihood of overbank spillage but not overflowing at the time of analysis due to low river flows. The Potential breakages represent points that have very weak river embankments or have experienced several breakages in the past. The closed breakages are those that were previously open but efforts have been made to close them either with sand bags or heavy machinery. A total of 88 Open points have been identified, 44 on each river. In addition, 14 overflow points have been identified along the Shabelle River and none along the Juba River. More overflows could be expected when rivers level rises above normal rate. Several other points, which are either potential or temporarily closed with sandbags, have also been identified. With the Gu rains expected in April 2019, river levels will increase with a likelihood of flooding especially where open and overflow points have been identified. There is therefore an immediate need to close the open points and reinforce areas where there are weak river embankments. Temporary measures can be taken before the season begins. Maps of the status of river breakages along the two rivers, with detailed information, have been produced at large scale and hardcopies can be obtained from FAO SWALIM offices. This information is also available on the SWALIM website. It is worth noting that the methodology is biased towards Remote Sensing (RS) interpretation with only limited “ground truthing” due to access constraints. Open breakages and overflows might have been omitted or classified as potential in some cases where satellite images were not available or may not have been very clear due to heavy cloud cover and dense vegetation cover.

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Status of River Breakages Juba March 2019

Following a poor rainfall season of Deyr 2018 (Oct – Dec) within the Juba and Shabelle river basins the river flows of the two rivers have since been significantly below normal. Reports indicate of drying river beds in some section of the Shabelle River during the month of February 2019. The situation is expected to improve in April given the GU 2019 rainfall forecast which calls for good rains within the catchments. FAO through SWALIM, has been involved in analysing and mapping the river breakages along the Shabelle River using very high resolution (sub meter) satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from earlier acquired aerial photographs having 3 meter resolution. Five types of breakages have been identified along Shabelle River namely; Open, Overflow, Potential Overflows, Potential breakages and Closed. The open breakages are those that were still open according to the latest satellite image analysed . The Overflow, indicates points where there has been recent river spillage causing extensive flooding. The potential overflows are those points that have high likelihood of overbank spillage but not overflowing at the time of analysis due to low river flows. The Potential breakages represent points that have very weak river embankments or have experienced several breakages in the past. The closed breakages are those that were previously open but efforts have been made to close them either with sand bags or heavy machinery. A total of 88 Open points have been identified, 44 on each river. In addition, 14 overflow points have been identified along the Shabelle River and none along the Juba River. More overflows could be expected when rivers level rises above normal rate. Several other points, which are either potential or temporarily closed with sandbags, have also been identified. With the Gu rains expected in April 2019, river levels will increase with a likelihood of flooding especially where open and overflow points have been identified. There is therefore an immediate need to close the open points and reinforce areas where there are weak river embankments. Temporary measures can be taken before the season begins. Maps of the status of river breakages along the two rivers, with detailed information, have been produced at large scale and hardcopies can be obtained from FAO SWALIM offices. This information is also available on the SWALIM website. It is worth noting that the methodology is biased towards Remote Sensing (RS) interpretation with only limited “ground truthing” due to access constraints. Open breakages and overflows might have been omitted or classified as potential in some cases where satellite images were not available or may not have been very clear due to heavy cloud cover and dense vegetation cover.

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Somalia Drought Watch Bulletin - Issued 26 Mar 2019

The much anticipated Gu rains in Somalia may experience a delay owing to the ongoing cyclonic systems in southern Indian Ocean. The ocean systems have delayed the northward movement of the rain bearing zone – Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Further, this has reduced the influx of moisture expected in the East African countries including Kenya and Somalia. Following a poor Deyr 2018 season many parts of the countries have experienced prolonged dry periods that have led to mild to moderate drought conditions in the country. The worst affected areas being north eastern parts of Puntland central regions.

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Update on 2018 Deyr Season Rainfall and Impact in Somalia

Following a below average Deyr 2018 (October-December) rainy season (Map 1) parts of Somalia are facing abnormally dry conditions, particularly large parts of the central and northern regions. The Deyr 2018 rainfall pattern in these region was poorly distributed in term of space and time. Most stations recorded less than five days of rainfall. The situation is expected to worsen during this Jilaal dry season (January–March) owing to the continued depletion of available water resources in the country until the start of the next rainy season of Gu 2019. The southern parts of the country was dominated by below normal conditions during the same period, However, a few pockets of Bay and and Bakool received slightly enhanced rains during the month of November 2018. The Ethiopian highlands that produce about 90% of the river flow in Somalia experienced depressed rains and this has significantly affected the river flow inside Somalia along the two major Rivers.

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Somalia Rainfall Outlook for Gu 2019 - Issued: 19 February 2019

Gu (April-June) is the primary rainy season in Somalia because it is more dominant in terms of quantity and reliability. Approximately 75 percent of the annual rainfall in Somalia is recorded during the Gu season. The Gu rains typically start in March/April and ends at different times throughout the country depending on the movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which is responsible for driving the rainfall. According to the recently issued consensus climate outlook for the Greater Horn of Africa (GHACOF51), the 2019 Gu rainy season in Somalia is expected to be near normal to above normal in most areas with warmer than normal temperatures across the whole country. There is increased likelihood of above normal to near normal rains with 70 percent probability of experiencing above normal to normal rains in Somaliland. The Ethiopian highlands whose rainfall contributes about 90 percent of the river flow in Juba and Shabelle rivers inside Somalia are also expected to record enhanced Gu season rains. The southern parts of Somalia, including large parts of central regions and Puntland will likely receive near normal rainfall. The coastal and adjacent parts of Nugaal, Mudug, Galgadud, Middle and Lower Shabelle Regions are expected to receive depressed rains with a higher percent probability of below normal to near normal rains

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 28-11-2018

The three days cumulated rainfall forecast is pointing towards light rains in scattered places across the country with Puntland expected to remain dry within the three days. Rainfall activities are expected to increase as seen in the one week forecast towards the end of the week especially in Southern and central parts of Somalia and the upper parts of the Juba and Shabelle basins within the Ethiopian highlands. Hot and dry conditions remain a concern in Somaliland and Puntland with the rainy season coming to an end. River levels along the Juba and Shabelle basins remain within the normal ranges with no risk of flooding given the rainfall forecast.

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Somalia Deyr Rainfall Perfomance, 2018

The 2018 Deyr rainy season was generally poor with many areas in Somalia recording average to below average rains. This is contrary to earlier predictions of enhanced rainfall in the country. Some areas in Sool, Sanaag and most of the central regions recorded little or no rains during the season. The season started off well in the northern regions and ended early while the southern regions experienced a prolonged delay of the rains which ended in late November and early December. Since the beginning of December, good rains were recorded in the southern regions, however the accumulated amounts were not sufficient to fully erode seasonal deficits. Map 1 gives an analysis of the rainfall performance during the season based on the observed rainfall data and field reports while Map 2 shows a comparison of the seasonal rainfall compared to the long term mean based on satellite rainfall estimates data.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 06-11-2018

The Deyr 2018 rainy season continued to spread in space across the country with poor performance during the month of October. Some parts are yet to record any significant rains since the season begun. The rainfall forecast for the next three days is calling for light or no rains in the country. The rains are expected to increase towards the end of the week to moderate levels of up to 40mm in the southern regions, west of Somaliland and the Ethiopian highlands. Most of central regions, Puntland and East of Somaliland will remain dry during the week. This calls for concern and close monitoring of the situation especially in Puntland which is already experiencing moisture stress due to the suppressed rains.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 14-11-2018

The rainfall forecast for the next seven days is calling for increased rains of up to 50—100 mm cumulative in the southern regions of Gedo, Middle Juba, Bay, Middle Shabelle, Lower Shabelle and Hiraan. The Juba catchment in the Ethiopian highland is also expected to record moderate to heavy rains in the coming week. Somaliland, Puntland and central regions will remain dry during the week in review. Given the rainfall forecast, river level along the Juba are expected to rise in the next few days with minimal risk of flooding. There is a cause for concern in Puntland which has remained dry in the last two weeks. No rainfall is foreseen in this area in the coming week.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 23-11-2018

During the last week, some places in the southern regions of the country, received light to moderate rains with a few stations recording cumulative amounts of 10 to 40mm. The Ethiopian highlands, which contribute significantly to the river flow of Juba and Shabelle rivers inside Somalia, also recorded moderate rains in the last week. The central parts, Somaliland and Puntland continued to remain dry during the same week. Moderate rains during the past week in the southern regions of Somalia, improved the soil moisture conditions and led to a slight increase of river levels, which are however below normal at this time of the year especially in the upper and middle sections of the river at Belet Weyne and Jowhar. With a forecast of below normal rains in the coming week, the river levels are likely to continue dropping. There remains a significant rainfall deficit in Puntland and central regions of Somalia. Soil moisture deficits coupled with high temperatures have led to water shortage and depreciation of pasture in the area. With no foreseen significant rainfall, amounts in the coming weeks, and following the deteriorating situation on the ground, the Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management Agency (HADMA) has appealed for early humanitarian interventions in Puntland on behalf of the local government.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 17-10-2018

The Deyr 2018 rainy season started in some parts of the country during the last week of September and is yet to start in some parts of the country especially in the southern regions. Following the passage of Tropical Strom LUBAN, that made a landfall in Yemen on 14 October 2018, parts of the northern coastal areas of Puntland received light to moderate rains in the last two days. While LUBAN was a threat to the shipping line of Puntland, no damage has been associated with the storm inland of the country. The rainfall forecast for the next three and seven days is calling for light to moderate amounts of rainfall in the northern regions and within the Ethiopian highlands. The central and southern regions of Somalia will receive little or no rains during the forecast period.

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Uncovering the challenges of domestic energy access in the context of weather and climate extremes in Somalia

In Somalia, challenges related to energy access is influenced by both weather and climate extremes and associated conflict. The objective of this article is to gain an improved understanding of these risks and challenges, which are faced by the most vulnerable populations in the country. In particular, cooking energy-related challenges faced by households affected by weather and climate extremes and conflicts include protection risks, malnutrition, health risks, environmental degradation and heightened tension and conflict between social groups. Interventions to address these issues should focus on both fuel supply and fuel demand as well as on improving the livelihoods of affected populations. In the aftermath of an extreme weather event it is recommended that assessments of the energy needs of all affected populations, including both hosts and Internally Displaced People (IDPs), be conducted. Post-disaster support should include the promotion of energy-efficient technologies for cooking as well as alternative sources of fuel where available, including non-wood based renewable energy. The implementation of a field inventory to assess the status of natural resources in areas vulnerable to climate impacts could help to determine woody biomass trends and enable the development of ecosystem restoration plans. These could include provisions for the establishment of woodlots and agro-forestry, thus building resilience to environmental degradation while maintaining woody biomass resources in and around displacement camps. Interventions should also be designed jointly with partners, and activities should be conflict-sensitive to ensure an enhanced state of resiliency and preparedness among vulnerable populations.

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Tropical Storm Alert - Issued 12 October 2018

Tropical Storm LUBAN expected to lead to winds of medium strength with moderate rainfall amounts in Bari and Sanaag regions in Somalia. A tropical storm that developed in the northern Indian Ocean is expected to make a land fall in Yemen in 3 to 4 days. The storm poses an immediate threat to the shipping lane that links Somalia and Gulf states. Further, it may affect the coastal areas of Bari and Sanaag regions of Somalia in the next 48 to 72 hours from today (12 October 2018). Moderate rains and winds of low to medium strength will be experienced in areas situated in the coastal areas of Bari and Sanaag regions. The impacts are expected to be of lower magnitude compared to recent tropical storms that have been experienced in this area. However, it is advisable to take the necessary precautions since the winds associated with the tropical storm might lead to destruction of weak structures. Flash floods are also foreseen in these areas. SWALIM and partners are monitoring the situation and will update you accordingly. For more details on tropical storm tracking you can consult: http://www.tropicalstormrisk.com/ or contact swalim@fao.org.

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Somalia Rainfall Outlook Deyr 2018: Issued 06-09-2018

A recent forecast issued by the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (GHACOF50), issued on 28 August 2018, indicates a greater likelihood of normal to above normal 2018 Deyr (October-December) rains across Somalia. Specifically, the forecast indicates 35 percent probability of above normal rainfall in the northwest regions. This probability is higher (40%) in the rest of the country. Overall, probabilities of normal to above normal rainfall are 75 percent across the country. According to the information from GHACOF50, the 2018 Deyr season is expected to start earlier than normal with normal cessation in many parts of the Somalia but an early cessation is likely in the northwest regions of the country. There is also an increased likelihood of warmer than normal average temperatures across Somalia. The anticipated average to above average Deyr rains are expected to further enhance pasture and water availability for livestock, improve livestock body condition and reproduction and facilitate increased crop cultivation in crop growing areas of Somalia. On the downside, normal to above normal rainfall is also likely in parts of the Ethiopian highlands which contribute significantly to the flow into the two main rivers in Somalia (Juba and Shabelle). As a result, there will be an increased risk of flooding along Juba and Shabelle rivers. Low lying areas of Galgaduud, Mudug, parts of Nugaal and other regions may experience flash floods during the forthcoming Deyr season due to the forecast heavy rains.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast: Issued 06-09-2018

The north eastern parts of the country recorded good rains over the last few days with some stations in southern parts of Togdheer and Sool regions recording over 50mm of rainfall. The rains are expected to continue spreading further in the coming weeks until the end of season in November. The rainfall forecast for the next three days is calling for moderate amounts of rainfall in most places of Puntland and central regions. The rains are expected to intensify in time and space during the week ending on 08 October 2018. Moderate rains are also expected in the upper parts of the Ethiopian highlands during the coming week. Other areas will remain dry in the next one week with little or no rains.

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