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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 02 May 2024

During the week between 1 and 7 May 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, light to moderate rain is expected over most parts of the country, with chances of heavy rain and flash floods expected in some areas of Hiraan, Galgaduud and Mudug regions. Based on climatology, the observed and anticipated northward spread of the rains into the central and northern parts of Somalia is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The arrival of the ITCZ will attract low-level incursions of precipitable water inland thereby mitigating the prolonged dry conditions over Bari. The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index, which ideally is expected to propagate eastwards covering the entire globe in 40 – 60 days, and therefore anticipated to be present over 1 of the 8 regions for about one week, has stagnated over the eastern Indian Ocean for about two weeks. This is favoring the observed moderate to heavy rains in Somalia and the extremely heavy rains elsewhere within the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA). The location of the index since 25 April shows improvement in strength and increase in forecast skill and reliability. As of 1 May, the index is at region 4 and is forecast to be back to region 2 within the next two weeks. Its lagged effect favors a continuation of moderate rains in the first half of the forecast period (1 – 4 May) with expected possible resumption of heavy rainfall activity in the second week of May. The favorable effect of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on the rains cannot also be ruled out. According to Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the warming in the Indian Ocean indicates a likelihood of positive IOD developing earlier than usual. Although Somalia is not within the direct path of the current tropical disturbance in the western Indian Ocean, the low pressure associated with it may lead to sucking of moisture causing generally less rainfall over the southern part of the country. Week by week and day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: • Very heavy cumulative rainfall between 150 mm and 200 mm is likely over some isolated areas in central and eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Hobyo district, southern parts of Gaalkacyo district, northern parts of Jaariban district in Mudug region, and southern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region. The rains over isolated areas in the above places particularly in the central and eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district may be very intense leading to more than 200 mm in cumulative terms and are likely to fall between 1 and 3 May 2024 with likelihood of flash flooding in vulnerable spots including flat and crowded human settlements. • Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is likely over the rest of the other areas in the following places: central and eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Hobyo district, southern parts of Gaalkacyo district, northern parts of Jaariban district, and eastern parts of Galdogob district in Mudug region, and western and southern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region. Similarly heavy rains are likely over northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, southern parts of Burtinle district in Nugaal region, eastern parts of Jowhar district in Middle Shabelle region and Baraawe district in Lower Shabelle. • Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over the rest of the areas in Dhuusamareeb district, and eastern parts of both Ceel Buur and Ceel Dheer districts in Galgaduud region, Gaalkacyo and Galdogob district and coastal parts of Xaradheere district in Mudug region, and Belet Weyne district and northern parts of Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, northern parts of both Ceerigaabo and Laas Qoray districts in Sanaag region, Burtinle district and northern parts of Eyl district in Nugaal region, Jowhar district in Middle Shabelle region, Baraawe, Sablaale, Kurtunwaarey and Wanla Weyne districts in Lower Shabelle region. Similar rains are likely over Qandala district and southern parts of both Qardho and Bandarbeyla districts in Bari region, central parts of Hargeisa-Odweyne districts’ border, Buhoodle district in Togdherregion, Las Anod and Xudun-Taleex districts’ border in Sool region. Rains of similarly moderate intensy are likely over some areas in South West State including Buur Hakaba district and central parts of Baydhaba district in Bay region, central parts of Bakool region and central parts of Bardheere district in Gedo region. • Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most of the following regions: Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Bay, Bakool, Gedo, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed, Bari, Nugaal, coastal parts of Mudug, southern parts of Sanaag, central parts of Sool, and southern parts of Awdal. • Dry conditions are likely to prevail over southwestern, northwestern, and northeastern parts of the country. These include western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, Zeylac and Lughaye districts in Awdal region, Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Caluul and Iskushuban districts in Bari region.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 09 May 2024

During the week between 8 and 14 May 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, light rains are expected over most parts of the country with moderate rains likely over Lower Shabelle and coastal parts of Lower Juba. Based on climatology, the observed and anticipated northward spread of the rains into the central and northern parts of Somalia is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ITCZ's arrival will attract low-level incursions of precipitable water inland, mitigating prolonged dry conditions over Bari. After the prolonged stagnation, the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index has now propagated eastwards from our region. This is likely to favor a week-long break from the moderate to heavy rains received in the region. The forecast return of the index is likely to drive moderate to heavy rains from 15 May 2024. The forecast rains in the third week of May (15 – 21 May) are associated with better skill and reliability. The rains are likely to decrease thereafter marking the end of the Gu season particularly in Jubaland, South West and Hirshabelle. The effect of the sea surface temperature (SSTs) difference between the eastern and western Indian Ocean on the rains cannot also be ruled out. According to Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the warming in the Indian Ocean indicates a likelihood of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) developing earlier than usual. However, it has been reported that MJO events occurring during positive IOD have weaker convection and less organized wind anomalies which restricts local low-level moisture transport thus explaining the low likelihood of very extreme rainfall this season. Week by week and day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall according to NOAA-NCEP GFS are as follows: • Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over Lower Shabelle region particularly Barawe, Marka and southern parts of both Sablaale and Kurtunwaarey districts. Similar moderate rains are likely over the coastal parts of Lower Juba region particularly Badhadhe, Kismaayo and Jamaame districts. The rains, according to ICPAC weekly forecast may be more intense (100 mm to 200 mm) over Hirshabelle region including the Shabelle River catchment within the country and upstream in Ethiopia. • Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast across the most other parts of the country particularly in Woqooyi Galbeed, Sanaag, Nugaal, Mudug, Hirshabelle, Bay, Bakool, Middle Shabelle, and Middle Juba regions. • Dry conditions are particularly likely over the Zeylac, Lughaye and Baki districts in Awdal region; Berbera district and eastern parts of Hargeisa district in Waqooyi Galbeed region; Odweine, Burao and Buhoodle districts in Togdheer region; Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region; and Bossaso, Qandala, Calula, Isku-shuban and Bandarbeyle districts in Bari region. Towards the central part of the country dry conditions are also expected over western parts of both Burtinle and Garowe and coastal parts of Eyl district in Nugaal region; Xarardheere, Hobyo and Jariiban districts in Mudug region; and Ceel Buur and Cadaado districts in Galgaduud region. Dry conditions are also expected western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region; Doolow and Belet Xaawo districts, western parts of both Luuq and Garbahaarey districts and southern parts of Baardheere district in Gedo region; Saakow district in Middle Shabelle region; Xudur in Bakool region; Wanla Weyn district in Lower Shabelle region; and western parts of Jowhar district in Middle Shabelle region.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 14 May 2024

According to NOAA-NCEP GFS, during the week between 14 and 20 May 2024, light to moderate rain are expected in Puntland and Somaliland with dry conditions likely throughout central and southern parts of the country. This general northward spread of the rains is favored by the northward presence of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). As had been anticipated, the eastward propagation of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index from the Indian Ocean favored the general dry conditions during the last week (7 – 13). While the index is presently within the region, none of the weather forecast models has captured its effect on rainfall during this forecast week. Given that its 5-day forecast position is associated with better skill and reliability, there is still a likelihood of moderate to heavy rains towards the end of the forecast week i.e., from around 18 May 2024. Day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The rains are likely to decrease thereafter marking the end of the Gu season particularly in Jubaland, Southwest and Hirshabelle. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall are as follows: Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over northwestern parts of Bandarbeyla district in Bari region. These rains are likely to be received between 14 and 16 May 2024. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over several areas in both Bandarbeyla and Iskushuban districts, northern parts of Qardho district, and southern parts of both Qandala and Caluula districts in Bari region; Garowe district, coastal parts of Eyl district, and northern parts of Burtinle district in Nugaal region; eastern and western parts of Ceerigaabo district, western parts of Ceel Afweyn district, and northern parts of Laasqoray district in Sanaag region; southern parts of Laas Caanod district and northern parts of Caynabo district in Sool region; northern parts of Burco district and western parts of Owdweyne district in Togdheer region; Gebiley district and northern and southern parts of Hargeysa district, and southern parts of Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed; and Borama and central and southern parts of Baki district, northern parts of Zeylac district in Awdal region. Rains of similarly trace amounts are also likely over isolated areas of Hobyo district, northern parts of Jariiban district, eastern parts of Gaalkacyo district in Mudug region; western parts of Dhuusamarreeb district in Galgaduud region; Belet Weyne town in Hiraan region; eastern parts of Afgooye district in Lower Shabelle region; and Banadir region. Dry conditions (rainfall less than 1 mm) are likely in most areas in the following regions: Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool and Middle Shabelle region. Dry conditions are also likely to prevail over Sablaale, Baraawe, Kurunwaarey, Qoryooley, Wanla Weyn districts and central and western parts of Afgooye district in Lower Shabelle region; Jalalaqsi, Bulo Burte and most other parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region; Ceel Dheer, Ceel Buur, Cabudwaaq and Cadaado districts and most other parts of Dhuusamarreeb district in Galgaduud regiuon; Xarardheere district, vast areas of Hobyo district, most other parts of both Jariiban and Gaalkacyo districts in Mudug region. Towards the northern parts of the country, dry conditions are also likely over inland parts of Eyl district, and most other parts of Burtinle district in Nugaal region; Bossaso district, most other parts of Qardho, Qandala and Caluula districts in Bari region; most other parts of Ceerigaabo, Laasqoray and Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region; Xudun, Taleex, and most other parts of both Laas Caanood and Caynabo districts in Sool region; Buhoodle and Sheikh districts and most other parts of Burco and Owdweyne districts in Togdheer region; central parts of Hargeysa district, and most other parts of Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed; and Lughaye, northern parts of Baki district, and southern parts of Zeylac district in Awdal region.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 04 April 2024

During the week from the 2nd to 8th April 2024, the onset of the Gu rains is likely to be observed with moderate rainfall expected over some places in the following regions: Lower Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower Shabelle, Awdal, and Woqooyi Galbeed regions. Dry conditions are likely to be observed over most parts of Galmudug and Puntland. The cloudiness and rains in the northern parts of the country are likely to result from the north easterly winds being orographically lifted by the east-west oriented mountain ranges. The anticipated progression of the rains from Jubaland into South West is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 m and 150 mm is expected over some places in the western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, the northern parts of Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, and western parts of Rab Dhuure in Bakool region. It is noteworthy that such projected heavy rains will fall within the catchment of Juba River. Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is forecast over most places in the western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, central parts of Baardheere district, western parts of Ceel Waaq district, eastern parts of Garbahaarey district and northern parts of Luuq district in Gedo region, northern parts of Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, western parts of Rab Dhuure district in Bakool region, and western parts of Sablaale and Baraawe districts in Lower Shabelle region. In the north, similarly moderate rains are anticipated over most places in Borama district and southern parts of Baki district in Awdal region, Gebiley district and western parts of Hargeysa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most places in Middle Juba and Middle Shabelle regions including Banadir, most of the other places in Lower Juba region including Jamaame district, most of the other places in Gedo region including Belet Xaawo and Doolow districts, most of the other places in Bay region including Baydhaba district and western parts of Buur Hakaba district, most of the other places in Bakool region including Waajid, Xudur and Tayeeglow districts and central and western parts of Cee Barde district, and most of the other places in Lower Shabelle including Kurtunwaarey and Qoryooley districts. Light rainfall is also expected over most parts of Hiraan region and coastal parts of both Ceel Dheer district in Galgaduud region and Xarardheere district in Mudug region. In the north, rainfall of similar amount is expected over most of the other places in Borama and southern parts of both Baki and Zeylac districts in Awdal region, most of the other places in Gebiley and Hargeysa districts in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and most of the other northern parts of both Ceerigaabo and Cel Afweyn districts in Sanaag region. Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast areas in the north including Bari, Sool, and Nugaal regions, Laasqoray district and central and southern parts of both Ceel Afweyn and Ceerigaabo districts in Sanaag region, Lughaye district and northern parts of both Zeylac and Baki districts in Awdal region, and Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region. Dry conditions are also expected in the central parts of the country including most inland parts of Mudug region, Cabudwaaq, Cadaado, and Dhuusamareeb districts in Galgaduud region, central and northern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, and the areas in Afgoye-Wanla Weyn districts’ boundary in Lower Shabelle.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 10 April 2024

During the week between 10 and 16 April 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, light to moderate rains is predicted over several isolated areas in Jubaland, Southwest and Galgaduud with dry conditions in Somaliland and Puntland. It is important to point out that ICPAC’s forecast based on WRF anticipates wetter conditions particularly over Gedo region. The chances of wetter conditions might be supported by the prolonged presence of MJO index over the Indian Ocean region. This stagnation of the MJO over this region indicates the presence of heavy rainfall producing conditions. The prevalent dry conditions over most parts of Puntland are likely to be driven by the low-level easterly winds blowing parallel to the coastline and therefore limiting the injection of water vapor inland. The anticipated spread of the rains from Jubaland into South West and possibly Galgaduud is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall are as follows: Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 m and 150 mm is likely over some isolated areas over Jubaland. Based on consensus such heavy rainfall is anticipated over Kismaayo district in Lower Juba region and, Bardheere and Ceel Waaq districts in Gedo region. According to ICPAC’s forecast, the rains over Ceel Waaq district might be particularly heavy accumulating to above 150 mm. It is noteworthy that such projected heavy rains will fall within the catchment of Juba River. Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over very isolated areas in Jubaland, Dinsoor and Qansax Dheere districts in Bay region, Sablaale, Baraawe, Wanla Weyne and Afgoye districts in Lower Juba region, Jowhar and Balcad districts in Middle Shabelle region. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most other places in Jubaland, South West, Hirshabelle and Galgaduud. Isolated light rains are also likely over some areas in the northern parts of the country particularly the windward sides of the mountainous and hilly areas. Such rains are likely over Borama district and southern parts of both Baki and Zeylac districts in Awdal region, and Qandala district in Bari region. Based on consensus, dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast areas in Puntland and the other places in Somaliland. Specifically, such dry conditions are likely over most areas of the following regions: Mudug, Nugaal, Bari, Sool, Sanaag, Togdheer and Woqqoyi Galbeed. Some forecasts also anticipated dry conditions over some areas in Hirshabelle and Bakool region. Temperature Forecast: Most parts of the country particularly southern and central parts are expected to observe moderately high temperatures of between 35 ℃ and 40 ℃. However, both exceptionally elevated (above 40 ℃) and remarkably moderate temperatures (below 30 ℃) are likely in some areas. Elevated temperatures above 40 ℃ are likely over some parts of Sheikh district in Woqooyi Galbeed region and Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region. Moderate temperatures of between 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ are likely some places in the north and the south and along the coastlines including the entire eastern coastline. Such temperatures are expected over most parts of Sanaag region particularly in Ceerigaabo district, most parts of southern Woqooyi Galbeed region particularly in Hargeisa district, and most parts of Borama district and southern parts of Baki district in Awdal region. In the south, these conditions are likely over Ceel Waaq district in Gedo region, Baydhaba district, eastern parts of Qansax Dheere district and northern parts of Dinsoor district in Bay region. Temperatures less than 30 ℃ are likely over the elevated areas in the north including places in Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region and Qandala district in Bari region.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 19 April 2024

During the week between 18 and 24 April 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, moderate to heavy rains are expected over several areas in the South West and Hirshabelle States with chances of very heavy rains over some areas in Bay and Sool-Sanaag regions. Light to moderate rain is expected over vast inland areas of Puntland with tendency of general dry conditions over the coastal areas of Bari and Nugaal regions. The chances of wetter conditions might be supported by the stagnation of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index over the eastern parts of Indian Ocean. The small amplitude of the index however signifies weak cycles of the MJO. This therefore is associated with decreased skill and reliability of extended range forecasts. The tendency of general dry conditions over Bari is likely to be driven by the low-level easterly winds blowing parallel to the northeastern coastline which limits the incursions of precipitable water inland. The anticipated northward spread of the rains from South West into Hirshabelle and possibly Galgaduud is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: • Very heavy cumulative rainfall between 150 mm and 200 mm is likely over some areas in Dinsoor, Baydhaba and Buur Hababa districts in Bay region, southwestern parts of Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, northwestern parts of Ceel Buur district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, Xudun and Taleex district sin Sool region, southern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, and southern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region. The rains over isolated areas in the above parts of Bay, Sool and Sanaag regions may be very intense leading to more than 200 mm in cumulative terms and are likely to fall between 18 and 21 April 2024 with likelihood of flash flooding. • Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is likely over the following areas: Dinsoor, Baydhaba and Buur Hababa districts in Bay region, Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, northwestern parts of Ceel Buur district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, Xudun and Taleex district sin Sool region, southern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, and southern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region. Such rains are alkso expected over southern parts of both Sablaale and Kurtunwaarey districts in Lower Shabelle region, eastern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, northwen parts of Qandala district in Bari region, northern parts of Laasqoray district and northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over the rest of the areas in Bay and Sanaag regions, the rest of the areas in Xudun and Taleex district in Sool region, the rest of the areas in southern Burco district in Togdheer region, several areas in Lower Shabelle region, Ceel Waaq and Bardheere districts in Gedo region, Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, Balcad district in Middle Shabelle region, Qandala district and northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, and over an area confined to the southern Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over several areas in Lower Juba, Mudug and Nugaal, Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed regions, the rest of the areas in Gedo and Bari regions, Jowhar, Cadale and Adan Yabaal districts in Middel Shabelle region. Such rains are likely over Borama districtareas in Gedo and Bari regions, Jowhar, Cadale and Adan Yabaal districts in Middel Shabelle region. Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast coastal areas in Nugaal and Bari region, Zeylac district and northern parts of both Lughaye and Baki districts in Awdal region, Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region. Temperature Forecast: Moderately high temperatures of between 35 ℃ and 40 ℃ are likely over Lower and Middle Juba regions, Galgaduud, Mudug and Bari regions, Dollow and Luuq districts in Gedo region, Sablaale and Wanla Weyn districts in Middle Shabelle region, southern parts fo both Dinsoor and Buur Hakaba districts in Bay region, western parts of both Belet Weyne and Bulo Burte districts in Hiraan region, Garowe district in Nugaal region, Sheikh district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Zeylac and Lughaye districts and northern parts of Baki district in Awdal region. Moderate temperatures of between 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ are likely the rest of the country except over Qandala in Bari region, Ceerigaabo in Sanaag region and northern parts of Odweyne in Togdheer region where temperatures less than 30 ℃ are anticipated.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 25 April 2024

During the week between 24 and 30 April 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, Light to Moderate rains are expected over the vast majority area in Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sool and Nugaal Regions. Most parts of Awdal, Sanaag, and Bari Regions will be dry over the forecast period. Along the coastal areas of Mudug, Galgadud and Middle Shabelle light rains are anticipated, while the rest of the country will receive moderate to heavy rains in the coming week. The chances of wet conditions are supported by the stagnation of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index over the eastern parts of Indian Ocean over the last 10 days. The small amplitude of the index however signifies weak cycles of the MJO. This therefore is associated with decreased skill and reliability of extended range forecasts. The tendency of general dry conditions over Bari and Sanaag Regions is likely to be driven by the low-level easterly winds blowing parallel to the northeastern coastline which limits the incursions of precipitable water inland. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: • Very heavy cumulative rainfall between 150 mm and 200 mm is likely over some areas in western parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiran region, and Baydhaba district in Bay region. Other parts of the country likely to receive the very heavy rainfall are Buale in Middle Juba Region, Garbahaarey in Gedo Region, and south of Burco in Togdheer Region. The heavy rains are likely to fall between 24 and 28 April 2024 with likelihood of flash flooding. • Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is likely over the following areas: Galkacayo in Mudug region, Dhuusamareeb in Galgaduud region, southern parts of Beletweine in Hiran region, Baydhaba in Bay region, Bu’aale in Middle Jubba, Kismayo in Lower Jubba, Garbaharey in Gedo region, Such rains are also expected over Burao in Togdheer region, and western parts of Hargeisa in Waqooyi-Galbed region. • Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over most areas of Mudug and Galgaduud regions, parts of Xudun and Taleex district sin Sool region, several areas in Lower Shabelle region, Ceel Waaq and Bardheere districts in Gedo region, Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, Balcad district in Middle Shabelle region, Qandala district and northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, and over an area confined to the southern Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed. • Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over vast majority areas in Waqoyi-Galbeed, southern parts of Burao, and Las’anod districts in Togdheer and Sool regions, Baki district in Awdal region, Erigavo district in Sanaag region, western parts of Garowe, Southeastren parts of Galkacayo in Mudug region. Such rains are likely over the most areas in southern and coastal parts of Mudug, Galgaduud, and Middle Shabelle regions. • Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast coastal areas in Nugaal and Bari region, Zeylac district and northern parts of both Lughaye and Baki districts in Awdal region, and eastern parts of Garowe and Las,anod districts in Nugaal and Sool regions, and southern parts of Jowhar district.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 28 March 2024

This forecast period marks the transition from the tail-end of Jilal to the forecast Gu season onset. Based on NOAA-NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS), moderate to heavy rains are expected over most parts of Somaliland, Jubaland, South West, Hirshabelle, and Galgaduud with dry conditions likely to continue over most parts of Puntland. The cloudiness and rains in the northern parts of the country are likely to be mediated by the north easterly winds ascending the east-west oriented elevations. While patches of clouds and isolated rains are likely over the elevated areas in Sanaag and Bari, the intensity of the rains over Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed on the windward sides of the Harage Highlands across the Ethiopian border. The forecast rains in the southwestern parts of the country are likely to be driven by the arrival of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and therefore signal the onset of Gu rains. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is forecast over western parts of Badhaadhe district and central parts of Kismaayo district in Lower Juba region, central areas of Bardheere district and northern areas of Luuq district in Gedo region, central areas of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region and eastern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region. The rains over isolated places in these areas particularly Badhaadhe in Lower Juba, Bardheere and Luuq districts in Gedo region and Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region are likely to be more intense leading up to more than 150 mm. As the week progresses the very heavy rains over Bardheere district in Gedo region are likely to sum up to more than 200 mm. It is noteworthy that such rains are likely to fall within the in-country catchments of both Juba and Shabelle Rivers. Moderate cumulative rainfall of between 50 m and 100 mm is expected over most places in the following areas: Badhaadhe, Kismaayo and Jamaame districts in Lower Juba region, Bardheere and Luuq districts in Gedo region, Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region, Burco district in Togdheer region, Gebiley district and western parts of Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Baki and Borama districts in Awdal region. Moderate rains are also likely over Jilib district in Middle Juba region, Garbahaarey district in Gedo region, Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, Tayeeglow district in Bakool region, Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, Sheikh district in Togdheer, Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region. The rains in the northern parts of the country particularly those over the northern border between Gebiley and Hargeisa districts are likely to be observed earlier between 27th and 29th March 2024. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most of the other places in Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Lower Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Middle Juba, Lower Shabelle, Middle Shabelle, Hiraan, and Galgaduud regions. Light rainfall is also likely over most parts of central and northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region and a few places in Bosasso and Qandala districts in Bari region. It is important to point out that the rains over the upper catchments of both Juba and Shabelle Rivers will be light to moderate in intensity. Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast areas in Mudug region, Nugaal region, Sool region and Bari region. Dry conditions are also expected over a few places in the following areas: Ceel Afweyn and Laasqoray distrcist in Sanaag region, Cabudwaaq and Ceel Dheer districts in Galgaduud, Balcad district in Middle Shabelle, Qoryooley, Sablaale and Baraawe districts in Lower Shabelle, eastern parts of Bu’aale district in Middle Jubas, northern parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region.

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STATUS OF RIVER BREAKAGES ALONG JUBA AND SHABELLE RIVERS - ISSUED MARCH 2024

The Food and Agriculture Organization’s Somalia Water and Land Information Management (FAO SWALIM) Project, has finalized the analysis and mapping of the river breakages along the Juba and Shabelle rivers using very high resolution satellite imagery. Following the El Niño-induced widespread floods of 2023, there have been an up surge in reported open breakages. A total of 190 Open breakage points, 76 Canal flooding points, 518 River overflow points and 23 points closed with sandbags have been identified along the Shabelle River while 109 Open breakage points, 1 Canal flooding points, 226 River overflow points and 5 points closed with sandbags have been identified along the Juba River which require immediate attention. Several other points, which are either potential or temporarily closed with sandbags, have also been identified. The forecast above average rainfall during the coming Gu season is likely to lead to high potential of flooding over the Juba and Shabelle rivers especially where open and potential points have been identified. There is therefore an immediate need to close the open points and reinforce areas where there are weak river embankments. Intervening agencies are advised to take advantage of the current dry period until the rains start and carry out temporary or long term measures to close the river breakages. This will see a reduction of riverine flooding in case of heavy rains and consequently a massive reduction in economic losses to the country.

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Somalia Seasonal Rainfall Outlook for Gu 2024

According to the Seasonal Climate Forecast issued by IGAD’s Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC), there is a 55% likelihood that above normal rainfall (wetter than normal conditions) will be observed over most parts of Somalia. In the south these above normal rains are likely over Gedo, Bay, and most parts of Bakool regions. In the north, chances of above normal Gu rains are particularly high over Bari, Nugaal, Sool, Sanaag and Awdal regions, Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and the southern parts of Togdheer region. Above normal rains are also likely over Mudug and Galgaduud regions in the central parts of the country, there is 40 – 50 % likelihood above normal rains over Hiraan region and extensive coastal parts of the following regions: Lower Juba, Middle Juba, and Lower Shabelle.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 21 March 2024

This week marks the equinox; a period of the year during which the Earth’s axis is tilted neither towards the north nor south resulting in a “nearly” equal amount of daylight and darkness at all latitudes. The apparent position of the overhead Sun is expected to be generally over the celestial equator, which cuts through the country over Lower Juba region from Alabakuus in Jamaame district to Jana Cabdalle in Afmadow district, today 20th March 2024. Therefore, today and for several days afterwards, the length of day will range from about 12 hours and six and one-half minutes at the equator and the surrounding areas over Lower Juba region. Based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, dry weather conditions are expected throughout the country particularly between 20th and 22nd March 2024. The weekly forecast indicates likelihood of moderate rains over the Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed and Lower Juba regions in between 22nd and 26th March 2024 (Figure 1). The cloudiness and rains in the northern parts of the country are likely to be mediated by the north easterly winds ascending the east-west oriented elevations. While patches of clouds and isolated rains are likely over the elevated areas in Sanaag and Bari, the intensity of the rains over Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed on the windward sides of the Harage Highlands across the Ethiopian border. The forecast rains in the southwestern parts of the country are likely to be driven by the arrival of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and therefore signal the onset of Gu rains. This week may therefore mark the end of dry conditions which was attributed to reduced moisture influx due to the delays in the northward movement of rain-bearing ITCZ because of the lower-level cyclonic circulation associated with tropical cyclone Filipo in the Mozambique channel. Moderate rains are therefore likely over the southwestern parts of Somalia during the first week of April 2024. As a demonstration of the intense insolation associated with the present position of the overhead Sun, elevated temperatures of above 40°C are expected over southwestern parts of Somalia. While such is associated with thermal discomfort, it is the lifting of this hot and moist airmass that will precipitate into the rains in the coming days. Most parts of the country are likely to observe generally warm conditions of between 30°C and 40°C with only elevated areas in Ceerigaabo and areas in the northern coastal strip recording less than 30°C.

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Review of Deyr 2023 Rainfall Performance, Jilal Status, Gu Outlook, and Implications on Livelihoods over Somalia

Several key findings have been obtained following a review of the 2023 Deyr (October-November-December) seasonal rainfall. Heavy cumulative rainfall was observed over the south and central parts of the country with a substantial 1,152 mm being recorded in Baidoa in Bay region representing five times of the station’s Long-Term Mean (LTM). The rainfall was even much heavier in Berbera in Wooqoyi Galbeed Region where the amount was 26 times the LTM. The Deyr rains began in early October over parts of Somaliland and central parts of Puntland spreading southwards to Gedo and Bay-Bakool regions. However, there was a sharp end to the Deyr rains particularly over Puntland and Somaliland with no single rainy day observed in Puntland in December. There was more than 30 consecutive dry days in almost all the stations in the country between 1st October and 31st December 2023. The observed rainfall amounts, and the length of wet spells particularly over the Juba and Shabelle River basins within the country were 100% in agreement with the forecast. The onset of Deyr rains across the country was also generally in agreement with the forecast with most of the stations realizing onset within a week of the forecast date.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 13 December 2023

Light rainfall of below 50 mm is forecast over some areas in the southern parts of the country in the coming week. These light rains are expected in the earlier part of the forecast week (13th – 15th December) over Badhaadhe, Kismayo and Jamaame districts in Lower Juba region, Ceel Waaq and Belet Xaawo districts in the Gedo region. Other areas expected to receive the light rains are the coastal areas of Jilib district in Middle Juba region, Marca and Kurtunwaarey districts, areas in the Sablaale, Qoryooley, and Barawe districts in Lower Shabelle region, and Baidoa in Bay region. Although moderate in cumulative amounts, the rains over the Lower Juba region are likely to be spread out across the entire week and will therefore be less intense. Moderate rains above 50 mm may be observed in some areas along the southern coastal strip whenever the monsoonal winds blowing parallel to the coastline are accentuated by any elevated East-West oriented terrain. As these monsoonal winds blow southwards across the Gulf, there are also chances of trace amounts of rains over the northern coastal strip including Caluula and Qandala districts in Bari region and Berbera districts in Woqooyi Galbeed region. Dry conditions – The rest of the country is expected to remain dry during the coming week. The model predictions of minimal rainfall amount across the country and the Ethiopian highlands in the month of December signals the end of the Deyr rainy season for Somalia.

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Weekly Weather Forecast for SIRA II Project Districts Somaliland - Issued 01-12-2023

Weather Forecast for the Period 1st to 7th December 2023 Rainfall Forecast: Light rainfall ranging between 2 to 5 mm is expected in the northeastern parts of the project area. This encompasses the western regions of Berbera district, Banmadar and Cabdi Geeddi in the eastern regions of the Baki district, as well as Beeyo Liiban in the eastern parts of Lughaye district and Ceel Lay Heelay in the northern part of Hargeisa district. Conversely, dry conditions are expected to persist across the remaining project areas, with the likelihood of rainfall less than 2 mm. Temperature Forecast: Mild temperatures between 20°C and 25°C are expected in the southern parts of Borama and Gebiley districts, as well as the southwest of Hargeisa district. Northern parts of Lughaye district are expected to experience relatively higher temperatures ranging from 30°C to 35°C. For the rest of the project area, moderate temperatures between 25°C and 30°C is expected.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 06 December 2023

Dry conditions: Most parts of the country are expected to remain dry during the coming week. The model predictions for the month of December indicating minimal rainfall amounts across the country and the Ethiopian highlands signals the end of the Deyr rainy season for Somalia. Temperature Forecast: The current forecast indicates likelihood of high temperatures ranging from 30°C to 35°C over extensive areas in the south, central and northeastern parts of the country. Milder temperatures ranging between 20°C and 25°C are anticipated over some areas in the following regions: Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer and Sanaag regions and inland parts of Bari region. Moderate temperatures of 25°C to 30°C are anticipated in the rest of the country.

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Beletweyne Riverine Flood Impact Map - Issued 21 November 2023

By 20th of November 2023, approximately 43,455 buildings; 968 Km of road and 28,418 Hectares of farms in Belet Weyne were flooded, as depicted on the map. The flood extents were identified through a comprehensive analysis, incorporating data from a modified Global Flood Model (GFM) based on Sentinel-1 image of November 20, 2023, visual interpretation of UNOSAT Beletweyne city extent data of November 16, 2023, and Sentinel-2 image of November 20, 2023. This inundation had a notable impact on the region. The data derived from this analysis offers a detailed overview of the extent and consequences of the flooding, facilitating a more informed understanding of the situation for effective response and mitigation efforts.

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WEEKLY WEATHER FORECAST FOR SIRA-2 PROJECT DISTRICTS, SOMALILAND

Light Rainfall expected over the Central Parts of Hargeisa and Gebiley Districts, with Dry Conditions Beyond the Eastern and Northern Parts of Baki and Borama Districts Weather Review for the Period 1st and 7th November 2023 During the period under review, rainfall of at least 1 mm was recorded in Thirteen (13) stations (Graph 1), down from twenty (20) stations the previous week. The following eleven (11) stations, down from six (6) stations, observed cumulative rainfall equal to or greater than 30 mm: Caynabo (79 mm), Gumburaha (78 mm), Laas Dawaco (74 mm), Sheikh (67.5 mm), Yagori (66 mm), Balli Dhiig (60 mm), Salaxley (46 mm), Garadag (43 mm), Geerisa (40 mm), Bolohar (36 mm), and Lughaye (32 mm). The best temporal distribution of rainfall was realized at Caynabo (79 mm) where three rainy days were recorded. The most intense rains were those received in a single day over Yagori (66 mm), Geerisa (40 mm), Bolohar (36 mm), Lughaye (32 mm), Erigavo (26.5 mm), and Burao (17 mm). Weather Forecast for the Period 10th to 16th November 2023 Rainfall Forecast Light rainfall of between 30 mm and 40 mm is expected over the western parts of Hargeisa district and central parts of Gebiley district. Light rainfall of between 10 mm and 30 mm is likely over Baki district, eastern parts of Hargeisa district, southern and northern parts of Gebiley district and southern parts of Borama. Dry conditions with chances of light rainfall of below 10 mm are likely to prevail over the eastern parts of the project area. Temperature Forecast Milder temperatures of between 20 ℃ and 25 ℃ are likely over Borama and Gebiley districts, southern parts of Baki district, and most parts of Hargeisa district except over the northern where relatively higher temperatures 25℃ and 30 ℃. will prevail. High temperatures of between 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ are also likely over Lughaye and northern parts of Baki districts.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 22 November 2023

According to the coming week’s weather forecast, substantial rainfall is expected over Middle Shabelle region and the coastal areas of Galgaduud region. Additionally, the forecast indicates a range from moderate to heavy rainfall across Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Gedo, Lower Shabelle, and Bay regions. Dry conditions are anticipated throughout the rest of the country, with isolated chances of light rainfall over Bakool, Bari, Sanaag, and Woqooyi Galbeed regions. For the spatial and temporal distribution of the forecasted rainfall, refer to Map 1. Heavy rainfall of between 100 mm and 150 mm is expected over coastal areas of Cadale, Balcad and Adan Yabaal districts in Middle Shabelle region. Similarly heavy rainfall is likely over Ceel Dheer district in Galgaduud region. Moderate rainfall of between 50 mm and 100 mm is forecast over inland parts of Cadale, Balcad and Adan Yabaal districts in Middle Shabelle region and Kismayo district in Lower Juba region. Light rainfall of below 50 mm is expected over Waajid district in Bakool, several areas in Lower Juba region, Middle Juba, Gedo, Bay, and Lower Shabelle regions. Similar conditions are likely in Caluula and Iskushuban districts in Bari region, and coastal parts of both Laasqoray and Berbera districts. Dry conditions are expected over areas around Saakow district in Middle Juba, Garbahaarey and Luuq districts in Gedo region, scattered areas of Bay region, extensive parts of Bakool, Hiraan, Galgaduud regions. Similar dry weather patterns are also expected in extensive parts of the entire northern regions of the country. Temperature Forecast: The current forecast indicates the likelihood of high temperatures ranging from 35°C to 45°C over extensive parts of the south, central and northeastern parts of the country. Milder temperatures ranging between 20°C and 25°C are anticipated over Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer and Sanaag regions and Inland parts of Bari region.

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Somalia Flood Advisory for Juba and Shabelle Rivers - Issued 13 November 2023

Juba River For more than a week now, run off from moderate to heavy rains have caused the water levels along the entire Juba River to overflow their riverbanks causing devastating floods which have led to damage to crop lands and road infrastructure rendering them impassable and cutting off access in to and out of towns and other human settlements. The rains over Bardheere have been particularly intense with up to 126 mm having been observed in the last two days. The 46-year old steel bridge at Bardheere was overtopped and eventually gave in to the floods and collapsed. The runoff from both ongoing and forecast moderate to heavy rains over the Juba River catchment will sustain the river overflows and flooding at Dollow and Luuq and worsen the flooding at Bardheere and downstream reaches. There is therefore SUSTAINED FLOODING along the entire Juba River with INCREASING MAGNITUDE at both Bardheere and downstream at Saakow and Bualle. The activated evacuation plans should therefore be sustained and along the entire stretch and upscaled at Bardheere and downstream. Shabelle River For about two weeks now, the water levels along the Shabelle River have been steadily increasing. On Saturday 11th Nov, arrival of the earlier projected floodwave from the Ethioipian Higlands led to a sharp rise in the water level at Beletweyne to bankful level (8.30 m). The subsequent riverbank overflow led to massive floods covering up top 90 % of the town only sparing the few elevated areas. The flow over the main bridge cut the town into two parts. Based on timely advisories from SWALIM, SoDMA/MoHADM and other partners, the population had been safely evacuated to designated higher grounds by the time the floods started. Subsequent voluminous inflows have led to further spread of the floodwaters as reported today. Floods have also been observed at Balcad as a result of river breakages. The river level at Bulo Burte is steadily rising, and now only 36 cm below the high flood risk level and 126 cm below bankful. At Jowhar the level is only 65 cm below moderate risk level. The runoff from the ongoing and forecast moderate rains over the Shabelle River catchment upstream in Ethiopia and near the Somalia border will sustain the current bankful water levels at Beletweyne. Additionally, voluminous water measuring up to 9 km can be identified on the current satellite images upstream of Beletweyne in Ethiopia. There is a high likelihood that the arrival of this flood wave will lead to further significant river level rise and flooding at Beletweyne in the coming days. The run off from the forecast very heavy rains over the Shabelle River catchment on the eastern parts of Bulo Burte in the coming week will add to the downstream flow of the flood wave currently at from Beletwyene leading to rise in river levels at Bulo Burte, Jalalaqsi and Jowhar to high flood risk levels then bankful levels. Flash floods are also expected in Bulo Burti and surrounding areas following the very heavy rainfall expected over the next 3 days. There is therefore ONGOING FLOODING WITH INCREASING MAGNITUDE at BeletWeyne and its environs and ONGOING FLOODING WITH MODERATE MAGNITUDE at Balcad and its environs and HIGH RISK OF FLOODING at Bulo Burte and its environs and PROJECTED HIGH RISK at Jowhar and its environs. The activated evacuation plans should therefore be sustained at Beletweyne town and the surrounding areas. The evacuation plans should be activated at Bulo Burte and surrounding areas. The evacuation plans should be placed on standby at Jowhar and surrounding areas.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 01 November 2023

Extremely heavy rainfall is expected over Gedo, Lower Juba, Hiran, and Togdheer regions; moderate to heavy rainfall is anticipated over several other parts except for Bari region and coastal areas of the country where light rains is expected. A three -days forecast shows that much of these rains are likely to be received between 1st and 3rd November 2023. The spatio-temperal variation of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) is described below: • Extremely heavy rainfall of between 150 mm and 200 mm is expected over several areas in Gedo region, Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, southern parts of Saakow district in Middle Juba region, Beletweyne and Bulo Burte districts in Hiraan region, southern parts of Togdheer region, and Las Anod. The rains particularly over Gedo region, northern parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, southern parts of Beletweyne district and northern parts of Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, and Buuhodle district and southern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region are likely to be very intense leading up more than 200 mm. Rains of comparable amounts is also forecast over the middle and upper catchments of both Juba and Shabelle Rivers in Ethiopian Highlands. • Moderate to heavy rainfall of between 50 mm and 100 mm is forecast over most areas in Bakool, Bay, Saakow and Jilib districts in Middle Juba region, Cabudwaaq district in Galgaduud region, Galdogob district, eastern and southern parts of Gaalkayo district and northern parts of Hobyo district in Mudug region, and isolated areas in Lower Juba region. Towards the north, rainfall of similar amounts is also anticipated over several areas in Togdheer and Sool regions, Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Ceel Afweyn district and southern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, Burtinle district in Nugaal region, and isolated areas in Bari region. • Light to rainfall of below 50 mm is expected over several areas in Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle regions, central parts of Lower Juba region, Bualle district in middle Juba region, and Jalalaqsi district in Hiraan region. Such rains are also expected over the central parts of the country including Galgaduud region, Xarardheere district and southern parts of Hobyo district in Mudug region, Eyl and Garowe districts in Nugaal region. In the north, rains of such amounts are expected over several areas in Bari region, Laasqoray district and eastern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, Gebiley district and central parts of Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed, Baki and Lughaye districts in Awdal region. • Dry conditions are expected over the coastal areas in both Iskushuban and Caluula districts in Bari region and the southern parts of Borama district and western parts of Zeylac district in Awdal region.

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Weekly Weaher Forecast for SIRA II Project Districts Somaliland - Issued 25-11-2023

Vey light rainfall expected over the Berbera district in the northeastern parts of the project area, with dry conditions prevailing in the other areas. Weather Review for the Period 14th to 20th November 2023 During the period under review, rainfall of at least 1 mm was observed in thirty-four (34) stations, as illustrated in Graph 1. This marks an increase from the previous week's thirteen (13) stations with recorded rainfall. Twenty stations (20) reported cumulative rainfall exceeding 30 mm. The specific stations, their respective rainfall totals and rainy days are as follows: Laas Dawaco (122 mm in 2 days), Bulohar (110 mm in 2 days), Gacan_libah (97 mm in 3 days), Malawle (75 mm in 2 days), Gargara (61 mm in 1 days), Baligubadle (59 mm in 2 days), Gerisa (58.5 mm in 2 days), Berbera (56 mm in 2 days), Hargeisa (55 mm in 2 days), Salaxley (53 mm in 2 days), Xeego (50 mm in 2 days), Garbodadar (47.5 mm in 1 days), Lughaye (46 mm in 3 days), Sayla (45 mm in 1 days), Dhubato (43.5 mm in 2 days), Cadaadley (35 mm in 1 days), Dararweyne (34.5 mm in 3 days), Geedeble (34 mm in 1 days), Zaila (34 mm in 2 days), and Taysa (33 mm in 2 days). Having been recorded on one of the days of the week under review, the rains over Bulohar (70 mm), Laas_Dawaco (68 mm), Gargara (61 mm) and Gacan_libah (56 mm) were the most intense. The best three-days rainfall distribution was achieved over Gacan_libah, (97 mm), Lughaye (46 mm) and Dararweyne (34.5 mm). Weather Forecast for the Period 22nd to 28th November 2023 Rainfall Forecast: The weather forecast indicates very light rainfall of between 2 and 5 mm over the northeastern parts of the project area. These areas include western parts of Berbera, Banmadar and Cabdi Geeddi in the eastern part of Baki district; Ceel Lay Heelay, Bildhaaley, Bodale and Daradawanley in the northern part of Hargeisa district. Dry conditions with chances of rainfall less than 2 mm will prevail over the rest of the project areas. Temperature Forecast: Milder temperature of 20 ℃ to 25 ℃ is expected over some areas in the south of Gebiley district and in the southwest of Hargeisa district. Comparatively higher temperature of between 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ is anticipated in Lughaye district and some areas in the northeastern parts of Baki district. Moderate temperatures of between 25 ℃ to 30 ℃ are expected to prevail over the rest of the project areas.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 15 November 2023

In the next week heavy rainfall is expected over parts of Gedo, Bay, and Galgaduud regions, and moderate to heavy rainfall over most other parts of the country. Dry conditions with chances of isolated light rainfall are however expected in Bari region. Much of the forecast rains over Galgaduud and Bay regions are likely to be received between 15th and 17th November 2023. The spatio-temperal variation of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) is described below: • Heavy rainfall of between 100 mm and 150 mm is expected over the western areas of Gedo Specifically in Ceel Waaq, Belet Xaawo, isolated parts of Luuq, Dollow, and Garbahaarey. Likewise, Baydhaba in Bay, along with parts of Xuddur, Tayeeglow, and Waajid bordering Bay in the Bakool region, are expected to experience similar intense rainfall. In Galgaduud, comparable weather conditions are expected, particularly over Cabudwaaq and Cadaado. Additionally, isolated areas in Hiraan and Sanaag are also likely to encounter heavy rainfall during this period. The Ethiopian highlands is also expected to receive high to moderate rainfall over the forecast period • Moderate rainfall of between 50 mm and 100 mm is forecast over extensive areas in Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Hiraan, Galgaduud, and Mudug regions. Similar conditions are also anticipated in the northwestern regions of the country, particularly over Lughaye and Baki in Awdal, the northern areas of Gebilley, Sheikh in Togdheer, extensive parts of Woqooyi Galbeed, as well as Ceel Afweyn and Ceerigavo in the Sanaag region. • Light rainfall of below 50 mm is expected over several areas in Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Lower Shabelle, Middle Shabelle regions, parts of Dinsor and Burhakabar in Bay region, Jalalaqsi in Hiraan region, Ceel Buur, Ceel Dheere and parts of Dhuusamarreeb in Galgaduud, extensive part of Mudug, Nuugal, Bari, Sool, Sanaag regions, Zeylac and Borama in Awdal region, Hargeisa and Southern parts of Gebilley in Woqooyi Galbeed, Burco, Buuhodle and most parts of Odweyne in Togheer, most parts of Bosasso, Qandala, Coastal parts of Callula, Isolated pasts of Iskushuban and Qardho in Bari region. • Dry conditions are expected over isolated areas in Sanaag, Taleex, Qardo, Iskushuban, Callula, extensive parts of Bandarbeyla, northern parts of Eyl and Isolated parts of Lower Juba.

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Somalia Flood Advisory For Juba And Shabelle Rivers - Issued 02 November 2023

Juba River Catchment Over the past three days, there has been a notable increase in both the amount and intensity of rainfall in the Gedo region and the Ethiopian highlands. The current water levels along the Juba River are now only 8 cm below bankful level at Dollow, 14 cm at Luuq, and under 40 cm at Bardheere. The ongoing heavy rainfall, coupled with the forecasted moderate rains in the next 24 hours, with an accumulation of approximately 150 mm over the next three days across Gedo, are expected to cause the river level to reach bankful height. This presents a high risk of riverine flooding along the entire stretch of the Juba River. Additionally, there is a high risk of flash flooding in the Gedo region, particularly in the Garbahaarey district within the next 24 hours. Residents in Deeday, Buulo Oomin, Tuutees, and Dhayba should take all necessary precautions to ensure their safety. Necessary anticipatory action should be taken. Shabelle River Catchment There has been a slight increase in water levels along the Shabelle River. The water levels are currently just 8.0 cm, 50.0 cm and 70.0 cm below the moderate flood risk levels at Beletweyne, Bulo Burte and Jowhar, respectively. The runoff from forecast moderate rains within the catchment over the next three days in HirShabelle, is likely to lead to a gradual rise in water levels with moderate risk of flooding along the Shabelle River. There are also reports of high flood wave approaching the Somali-Ethiopia border which is projected to lead to a significant river level rise in 3 to 4 days. Flash Floods Within the next 24 hours, heavy rains are anticipated over most areas of Bakool and Bay regions. As a result, there is a high risk of flash flooding in low-lying and vulnerable areas, particularly in Buur Hakabar, Diinsoor, Qansax Dheere, and Baydhaba districts in Bay, as well as Waajid and Ceel Barde districts in Bakool. Most parts of Middle Juba, including areas around Jilib, are expected to receive rainfall exceeding 100 mm, with coastal areas of Jilib experiencing particularly high amounts of over 200 mm, posing a significant risk of flash floods especially around Jiirta and Kuunyo-Burrow. Similarly, areas along the border of Hobyo and Jariiban districts in Mudug are likely to receive rainfall exceeding 200 mm, potentially leading to flash floods over Xingaras, Dhinooda, Ceel Dhahanaan, and Ceel Bacduur. Residents around the mentioned areas should take precautionary measures to ensure their safety.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 29 November 2023

Light rainfall of below 50 mm is expected over the coastal parts of Adan Yabaal, Cadale, and Balcad districts in Middle Shabelle region, as well as Banadir, coastal parts of Jilib district in Middle Juba region, Jamame, Kismayo, and Badhaadhe districts, and the border areas between Afmadow and Kismayo districts in Lower Juba region. Similarly light rains are also anticipated over areas bordering Bur Hakaba district in Bay region and Qoryooley district in Lower Shabelle region. Dry conditions are expected to prevail over the rest of the country in the upcoming week. Similar dry conditions are also expected over the Ethiopian Highlands. Temperature Forecast The current forecast indicates the likelihood of high temperatures ranging from 30 ℃ to 35 ℃ over extensive areas in the south, central and northeastern parts of the country. Milder temperatures ranging between 20 ℃ and 25 ℃ are anticipated over some areas in the following regions: Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer and Sanaag regions and inland parts of Bari region. Moderate temperatures of 25℃ to 30 ℃ will prevail over the rest of the country.

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Beletweyne Riverine Flood Impact Map - Issued 17 November 2023

Between the 12th and 15th of November 2023, approximately 24,318 buildings, 562 km of roads and 14,697 Hectares of farms in Belet Weyne were flooded, as depicted on the map. The flood extents were identified through a comprehensive analysis, incorporating data from a modified Global Flood Model (GFM) based on Sentinel-1 image of November 14, 2023, visual interpretation of UNOSAT Beletweyne city extent data of November 12, 2023, and Sentinel-2 image of November 15, 2023. This inundation had a notable impact on the region, affecting 54% of buildings, 6% of the main road distance, and 41% of agricultural cropland. The data derived from this analysis offers a detailed overview of the extent and consequences of the flooding, facilitating a more informed understanding of the situation for effective response and mitigation efforts.

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